Country

Population: approx. 33.000.000 people
Capital: Khartum
Sudan is Africa's largest country, it’s located on the northeast part of the continent.
Neighbouring countries (8): Eritrea, Libya, Chad, Egypt, Central African Republic, South Sudan, Ethiopia, Red Sea
Rivers: the Nile, Blue Nile, White Nile
Sea: Red Sea
Form of government: Republic
Independence: 1956. January 1 (United Kingdom and Egypt)
Independence: 2011. July 9 (South Sudan)  
Prime Minister: Umar Hasan Ahmad al-Bashir  
Official languages: Arabic, English  
Religions: Muslim 70% (mainly in the north), Christian 5% (mostly in the south and the capital city), 25% of teribel religions

Sudan is situated in northern Africa, with a 853 km coastline bordering the Red Sea. With an area of 1.886.068 km2, it is the third largest country on the continent after Algeria and Democratic Republic of the Congo.

Relief

The terrain is generally flat plains, broken by several mountain ranges; in the nort-west the Uveinat Mountain (1934 m), and in the middle of the country, the Nubah Mountain (1460 m). Deriba Caldera (3042 m), located in the Marrah Mountains, is the highest point in Sudan.

Hydrography

The Blue and White Nile rivers meet in Khartoum to form the River Nile, which flows northwards through Egypt to the Mediterranean Sea. The Blue Nile's course through Sudan is nearly 800 km long and is joined by the Dinder and Rahad Rivers between Sennar and Khartoum. The White Nile within Sudan has no significant tributaries. Most significant rivers: Nile, White Nile, Blue Nile and Atbara.

Climate

The amount of rainfall increases towards the south. In the north, there is the very dry Nubian Desert; in the south there are swamps and rainforest. Sudan's rainy season lasts for about three months (July to September) in the north, and up to six months (June to November) in the south. The dry regions are plagued by sandstorms, known as haboob, which can completely block out the sun. In the northern and western semi-desert areas, people rely on the scant rainfall for basic agriculture and many are nomadic, travelling with their herds of sheep and camels. Nearer the River Nile, there are well-irrigated farms growing cash crops.

Wildlife and conservation

Desertification is a serious problem in Sudan. There is also concern over soil erosion. Agricultural expansion, both public and private, has proceeded without conservation measures.The consequences have manifested themselves in the form of deforestation, soil desiccation and lowering of soil fertility and the water table.

The nation's wildlife is threatened by hunting. As of 2001, twenty-one mammal species and nine bird species are endangered, as well as two species of plants. Endangered species include: the waldrapp, Northern White Rhinoceros, Tora Hartebeest, Slender-horned Gazelle and hawksbill turtle. The Sahara oryx has become extinct in the wild.

source: wikipedia

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